Jeffrey joined Bath Spa University as a senior lecturer in law in July 2020. He is the course leader for the LLM programmes and a tutor on the LLB. His areas of expertise include private law obligations; civil litigation; legal skills; legal theory; healthcare law and ethics.
He has an extensive background in the law, entering legal practice in 1992 and subsequently qualifying as a Solicitor in England and Wales. He was an equity partner in a national law firm, acting for insurers, professionals, public bodies and healthcare providers. His litigation practice covered a range of jurisdictions and involved occupational disease, abuse and education-related claims. His appellate court experience includes a successful claim in the European Court of Human Rights.
Jeffrey entered academia in 2010, obtained his Fellowship of the Higher Education Academy in 2013, and completed his doctorate in 2019. His interdisciplinary research is mainly concerned with regulatory, ethical and practice norms in the sphere of human genetics, fertility and reproductive health.
Jeffrey is also the Technical Director for the Forum of Insurance Lawyers.
- PhD, Bournemouth University
- FHEA, Higher Education Academy
- PGCE, Bournemouth University
- Solicitors' Final Examination, College of Law
- LLB (Hons), University of Southampton.
Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England and Wales (non-practising).
- Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
- Member of the Society of Legal Scholars
- Member of the Socio-Legal Studies Association.
Other external roles
- Technical Director: Forum of Insurance Lawyers (FOIL)
- External Examiner: Leeds Beckett University
- Advisory Board: BU Law Review.
- The Professional Lawyer - Part 1 (Level 4)/ The Professional Lawyer (Level 7)
- Family and the Law (Level 5)
- Cyberlaw (Levels 6 and 7)
- Obligations to Others with Written Advice (Level 6)/Obligations and Dispute Resolution (Level 7)
- Civil Litigation and Case Management with Advocacy and Mooting (Level 6)
- Law Research Project (Levels 6 and 7)
- Legal Systems, Research & Skills (Level 7).
Contact me about research related to:
- Informational interests
- Legal theory
- Healthcare regulation and ethics
- Legal obligations.
Jeffrey's underpinning research explores challenges to the human reproductive paradigm including the disruptive effect of emergent technology on existing regulatory frameworks. His primary areas of impact relate to fetal medicine and prenatal/ newborn genetic screening.
Grants and Funding
- Contemporary Issues in Fertility Control: ACORN (Acceleration of Research & Networking) Funding 2019/2020
- Access to Justice, Ethics and Clinical Legal Education in Extraordinary Times: HEQR Seed Funding 2021/2022
Jeffrey would be happy to supervise students interested in researching legal theory, legal obligations and healthcare regulation/ ethics.
Research and academic outputs
Wale, J (2021) Regulating decision-making in multiple pregnancy: an inquiry into the practice of fetal reduction. Cambridge Scholars, Newcastle upon Tyne. ISBN 9781527569812
Packaging prenatal tests and information for pregnant women: enhancement or dilution of informational interests?
Wale, J (2022) 'Packaging prenatal tests and information for pregnant women: enhancement or dilution of informational interests?' In: Borghi, M and Brownsword, R, eds. Law, regulation and governance in the information society: informational rights and informational wrongs. Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 181-196. ISBN 9781003242987
Brownsword, R and Wale, J (2018) 'Regulating in the global village: the case of non-invasive pre-natal tests.' In: Symeonidou-Kastanidou, E, Kipouridou, K, Milapidou, M and Vasileiou, M, eds. Medicine, law and the internet. Nomiki Bibliothiki S. A., Athens, Greece. ISBN 9789606224515
Brownsword, R and Wale, J (2016) 'The development of non-invasive prenatal testing: some legal and ethical questions.' In: Hruschka, J and Joerden, J.C, eds. Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik = Annual Review of Law and Ethics 24. Duncker and Humblot, Berlin, pp. 31-48. ISBN 9783428150557
Brownsword, R and Wale, J (2015) 'Compromise medicalisation.' In: Stanton, C, Devaney, S, Farrell, A-M and Mullock, A, eds. Pioneering healthcare law: essays in honour of Margaret Brazier. Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 292-304. ISBN 9781138861091
Wale, J, Bruffell, M and Neild, P (2002) 'Occupational health & diseases.' In: Bateman, M, ed. Tolley's health and safety at work handbook. 14th ed. Tolleys, St. Ives.
When worlds collide: non-state actors, philanthropy and the commercial promotion of fertility control options in developing countries
Wale, J and Rowlands, S (2022) 'When worlds collide: non-state actors, philanthropy and the commercial promotion of fertility control options in developing countries.' Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, 27 (4). e1737. ISSN 2691-1361
Brownsword, R and Wale, J (2021) 'In ordinary times, in extraordinary times: consent, newborn screening, genetics, and pandemics.' BioLaw Journal - Rivista di BioDiritto, 1 (Sp). pp. 129-153. ISSN 2284-4503
Rowlands, S and Wale, J (2020) 'A constructivist vision of the first-trimester abortion experience.' Health and Human Rights Journal, 22 (1). pp. 237-250. ISSN 2150-4113
Wale, J and Rowlands, S (2020) 'The ethics of state-sponsored and clinical promotion of long-acting reversible contraception.' BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health. ISSN 2515-1991
Wale, J and Rowlands, S (2020) 'Incentivised sterilisation: lessons from India and for the future.' The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. ISSN 1362-5187
Wale, J (2019) 'Regulating disruptive technology and informational interests in the arena of reproductive tests.' Journal of Information Rights, Policy and Practice, 3 (1). ISSN 2398-5437
Rowlands, S and Wale, J (2019) 'Sterilisations at delivery or after childbirth: addressing continuing abuses in the consent process.' Global Public Health, 14 (8). pp. 1153-1166. ISSN 1744-1692
Brownsword, R and Wale, J (2018) 'Testing times ahead: non-invasive prenatal testing and the kind of community we want to be.' Modern Law Review, 81 (4). pp. 646-672. ISSN 0026-7961
Wale, J (2018) 'Screening human life - the legal and ethical implications of non-invasive prenatal testing.' AMPS Proceedings Journal Series, 11. pp. 20-28. ISSN 2398-9467
Brownsword, R and Wale, J (2017) 'The right to know and the right not to know revisited.' Asian Bioethics Review, 9 (1-2). pp. 3-18. ISSN 1793-8759
Don’t forget the legal framework: the public provision of non-invasive prenatal testing in England and Wales
Wale, J (2015) 'Don’t forget the legal framework: the public provision of non-invasive prenatal testing in England and Wales.' Medical Law International, 15 (4). pp. 203-215. ISSN 0968-5332
Family justice, turbulent times and demarking the space for social justice activism in clinical legal education
Wale, J (2022) Family justice, turbulent times and demarking the space for social justice activism in clinical legal education. In: Socio-Legal Studies Association Annual Conference, 6 - 8 April 2022, University of York, UK.
Wale, J (2021) Clinical legal education: conflicting aims, political activism and extraordinary times thinking. In: Legal Ethics / Ethics in Law Conference, 29 - 30 November 2021, Stellenbosch University Law Clinic, South Africa [online].
When worlds collide - non-state actors, philanthropy, and the commercial promotion of fertility control options in low- and middle-income countries
Wale, J and Rowlands, S (2021) When worlds collide - non-state actors, philanthropy, and the commercial promotion of fertility control options in low- and middle-income countries. In: Socio-Legal Studies Association Annual Conference, 30 March - 1 April 2021, Cardiff University, UK [online].
Wale, J (2020) Negotiating interests: revisiting the role of consent in newborn genetic screening. In: The Society of Legal Scholars Annual Conference, 1 - 4 September 2020, University of Exeter, UK [online].
Wale, J (2019) Regulating medical decision-making: a qualitative study of fetal reduction in multiple pregnancy. PhD thesis, Bournemouth University.
Wale, J (2015) Commentary: Greater Glasgow Health Board v Doogan & Another  UKSC 68. UK Health Care Law.